Essay about Psychology Basic Research Methods

Submitted By shaypark
Words: 1438
Pages: 6

Psychology 101
Lecture Set 1

Chapter 1: SUBJECT, HISTORY, and PERSPECTIVES
Define: the scientific study of behaviour and its causes
Scientific: highly specific method for doing research
Behaviour:
Overt (see or measured)
Covert (behaviour that can’t be measured ex. Thinking)
Convert can be inferred by overt
Causes: multiply and interactively (shape each other) determined
Since there are many different pieces, the approximate rate diverse

Psychology as Science
: Basic (curious; no advanced major science), Applied (done to solve a particular, practical problem)

Goals of Psychology (science)
1. Describe/define a behaviour
-to make everyone on the same topic; definition includes phenomenal interest, out phenomenal interest
2. Predict a behaviour
3. Influence/control a behaviour
*Prediction and control are the base of psychology
4. Understand (the causes of) behaviour
*without prediction and control, there is no understanding behaviour

PERSPECTIVES IN PSYCHOLOGY
-start with assumption(s), and others will follow
1. Look at multiple perspectives
-the parable of the blind men and the elephant
-use of language (mind/brain)
Different:
-View of Human Nature
-The determinants of Behaviour
-Assumptions
-Focus
-Methods
-Data
-kinds of conclusions
What consuetudes good evidence?

Perspectives
1. Biological
Views of Human Nature
Passive, mechanistic
Determinants of Behaviour
Structure of Physical System (brain)
Biochemistry of Brain/Nervous System
Focus of Study
Brian (macro and micro)
Heredity (유전)
Environment
Evolution (now own area)
Macro
Input-output areas
Large cognitive areas
Micro
Individual neurons
Neurotransmitters
Example: Serotonin and Depression
Communication within and between cells
Molecules within cells
Others

Environment
Large groups tend to have larger connection and branches within the brain cell

2. Psychodynamic
View
instinct and unconscious driven
Determinants of Behaviour
Heredity- the instincts, early experiences
Focus of Study:
Unconscious Drives: Sex and Aggression
→ must be controlled to meet societal demands
Early Childhood: conflicts, losses
Behaviour function of personality, personality determined by unconscious forces

3. Behaviourist (Learning Theory)
View: mechanistic
Behaviour reactive to stimuli in environment
Modifiable by learning and stimulus control
Determinants of Behaviour
Environment, Stimulus Conditions & Consequences
Focus of Study
Observable environmental stimuli and observable behaviour
Example: Law of effect –behaviour determined by consequences (desirable then increase, undesirable then decrease)
4. Cognitive (인지)
View
humans help “create” world and react to stimuli (internal and external)
Determinants of Behaviour how we process, evaluate, decide to respond (mental processes), to information
Focus of Study mental processes, language
Research
Infer (추론) mental processes through behaviour

5. Humanistic
View
Active, unlimited potential, self-determining (free will)
Determinants of Behaviour
Potentially self-directed
Focus of Study
Human experience, values
Human potentials
Research Approach
Life patterns, values, goals
-Drive to Self-Actualization (to be the best you can be)
-Selves and Relationship of selves
-Real
-Perceived (감지) → self-concept (congruence 일치)
-Ideal
-If out of sync, then can lead to psychological problems

6. Evolutionary
View
Adapted to solving problems during our evolutionary stages (Pleistocene era)

Determinants of Behaviour
Adaptations (behavioural modules) and environmental cues for activation
Focus of Study
Evolved Psychological Adaptations
Research Approach
Infer reasons for our current behaviour under current conditions
→ sexual and mate selection behaviour of males and females
7. Sociocultural
View
Humans as social animals
Determinants of Behaviour
Cultural upbringing
Focus of Study
Cultural Differences in behaviour
Research Approach
Cross cultural studies
8. Critical Perspectives
Forms
Feminism; racialism; disability theory; queer theory
Most Historical…