Qualitative Research and Cohort Trimester Characteristics Essay

Submitted By liyingying0113
Words: 928
Pages: 4

Doug Vogel
State Specially Recruited Expert
AIS Past President eHealth Research Institute Director
HIT School of Management

Case Study Research
1

Case Study
 Useful

when “how” or “why” questions are being asked about events over which investigator has little or no control
 Phenomenon often influenced by context
 Exploration in depth (program, event, process, activities, one or more individuals, organizations)
 Bounded by time and activity
 Data collection sustained over time
2

Case Studies
 Can

be single or multiple
 Can be combined with other research methodologies e.g., surveys
 Can precede or follow other methodologies in mixed method studies
 Can embrace a range of levels of analysis e.g., individual, group, organizational, industries and even countries 3

Case Study Types
 Exploratory

– Defining feasibility, questions and hypotheses for a subsequent study
 Descriptive

(interpretive)

– Complete description of a phenomenon within its context
 Explanatory

(positivist)

– Data bearing on cause-effect relationships
 Use

Single or multiple case studies (for replication or contrasting)
4

Multiple Sources of Evidence
 Documents

(reports, manuals, letters, meeting minutes, newspapers, websites)
 Archival records (org. charts, budgets, computer files, transactions, emails, forums)
 Interviews (guided conversations rather than structured queries – open-ended or focused)
 Physical artifacts (buildings, office layouts, workspace, products, technology)
 Direct observations
 Participant observations
5

Design
 Reflect

on goals and challenges
 Create a conceptual framework
 Identify research questions / propositions
 Develop a case study protocol
– Consider embedded units
 Identify

data sources

– Screen interview candidates
 Think

through analysis
 Develop a coding scheme
 Do a pilot study
6

Case Study Protocol
 More

than a questionnaire or instrument
 Guide to carrying out the data collection including procedures and rules
– Overview of the project e.g., objectives
– Field procedures e.g., sources of information
– Case study questions e.g., data table “shells” and semi-structured questionnaires
– Guide for the report e.g., format for the data and presentation of documentation
 Capture

the context as well as content
7

Embedded Units Design
Trimester 1

Trimester 2

Cohort Trimester Characteristics

Cohort Trimester Characteristics

(1A)

(1B)

(1C)

(2A)

(2B)

(2C)

Individual
Characteristics

Individual
Characteristics

Individual
Characteristics

Individual
Characteristics

Individual
Characteristics

Individual
Characteristics

8

Investigator Skills
 Ask

good questions
 Be a good listener
 Be adaptive and flexible
 Have a firm grasp of the issues being studied  Be unbiased by preconceived notions
– Don’t just substantiate a preconceived position
– Be open to contrary findings
– Report preliminary findings to colleagues and encourage alternative explanations
9

Data Collection
 Follows

a formal plan, BUT!!
 Requires an inquiring mind during data collection, not just before or after
– Continually ask yourself why events or facts appear as they do
– May lead to immediate need to search for additional evidence
– One tentative answer can lead to a whole host of new questions
– Questions should eventually aggregate to lead to advanced understanding
10

Coding Process
Read text data

Divide text into segments of information

Code segments

Refine Codes

Collapse codes into themes 11

Deductive Coding
 Start

with constructs associated with theory
 Consider measures associate with constructs  Create sub-codes more closely related to case characteristics
 Identify text samples related to sub-codes
 Combine coded text samples within measures and constructs
 Closely examine un-coded samples for emergent insights/implications for theory
12

Coding Scheme Sample
Construct

Code

Measure

Sub-Code

1. Challenge

CH

Goal Attainment

CH-GOA-XX

Competence

CH-COM-XX…