Syllabus: Research Methods and Longitudinal Studies Essay

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Basic social research: Social research refers to research conducted by social scientists, which follows by the systematic plan. Social research methods can generally vary along a quantitative/qualitative dimension * Quantitative designs approach social phenomena through quantifiable evidence, and often rely on statistical analysis of many cases (or across intentionally designed treatments in an experiment) to create valid and reliable general claims. Related to quantity. * Qualitative designs emphasize understanding of social phenomena through direct observation, communication with participants, or analysis of texts, and may stress contextual and subjective accuracy over generality. Related to quality.
While various methods may sometimes be classified as quantitative or qualitative, most methods contain elements of both. For example, qualitative data analysis often involves a fairly structured approach to coding the raw data into systematic information, and quantifying intercoder reliability.[2]Thus, a strong distinction between "qualitative" and "quantitative" should really be seen as a somewhat more complex relationship, such that many methods may be both qualitative and quantitative.
Social scientists employ a range of methods in order to analyse a vast breadth of social phenomena; from census survey data derived from millions of individuals, to the in-depth analysis of a single agents' social experiences; from monitoring what is happening on contemporary streets, to the investigation of ancient historical documents. The methods rooted in classical sociology and statistics have formed the basis for research in other disciplines, such as political science, media studies, program evaluation and market research.

Applied Research: Applied Research is a form of systematic inquiry involving the practical application of science. It accesses and uses some part of the research communities' (the academia's) accumulated theories, knowledge, methods, and techniques, for a specific, often state-, business-, or client-driven purpose. Applied research is compared to pure research (basic research) in discussion about research ideals, methodologies, programs, and projects
Applied research deals with solving practical problems and generally employs empirical methodologies. Because applied research resides in the messy real world, strict research protocols may need to be relaxed. For example, it may be impossible to use a random sample. Thus, transparency in the methodology is crucial. Implications for interpretation of results brought about by relaxing an otherwise strict canon of methodology should also be considered
The OECD's Frascati Manual describes Applied Research as one of the three forms of research, along with Basic research & Experimental Development.
Due to its practical focus, applied research information will be found in the literature associated with individual disciplines.

Types of applied Research 1) Evaluation Research Study 2) Action Research Study 3) Social Impact Assessment Research Study
Cross-Sectional Research: Cross-Sectional Research form a class of research methods that involve observation of all of a population, or a representative subset, at one specific point in time. They differ from case-control studies in that they aim to provide data on the entire population under study, whereas case-control studies typically include only individuals with a specific characteristic, with a sample, often a tiny minority, of the rest of the population. Cross-sectional studies are descriptive studies (neither longitudinal nor experimental). Unlike case-control studies, they can be used to describe, not only the Odds ratio, but also absolute risks and relative risks from prevalences (sometimes called prevalence risk ratio, or PRR). They may be used to describe…